Jupiter and its moons

Consistent telescopic observation of Jupiter and its moons will reveal what shocked Galileo and changed our picture of the universe.  The moons of Jupiter move and orbit about Jupiter.  This and the phases of Venus convinced the astronomical world that the sun was at the center of the solar system and not the earth.  Copernicus's theory was known to have several major flaws — why didn’t  the planets grow larger when closer, no observed parallax of the stars, where is the 2000 MPH wind as the earth whips through the air on its journey around the sun? {vacuum and inertia unknown back then}.  But Galileo’s telescopic observations and his publishing of the book The Starry Messenger changed everything and these earlier objections were eventually resolved.  Galileo’s ridiculing the amateur astronomer Pope Urban the VIII, and the rising Protestant reformation lead to the famous trial and house arrest of Galileo until better heads prevailed, and he was released.  An incident that many feel never would have happened had it occurred 100 years earlier or later.  For details see, The Galileo Connection, Hummel, IVP press, 1986.